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mamasou
04-13-2010, 07:31 AM
I have read several studies regarding the claimed immunomodulating effects of opiates and the trend is that they affect the immune system in a negative way.

But from swim's experience (chronic opium use) there seems to be no such effect.

In fact I have, according to swim's experience, seasonal flu and/or other infections have hardly ever occured during chronic use.

On the contrary, prior to using opium, swim suffered from the occasional flu or cold.

So that leads to the notion that there must be some anti-viral/microbial systemic properties associated with natural opiates (at least in the case of opium).

There is no data to refer supporting the above claims, but i might look into it further and come back.

duck
04-13-2010, 07:33 AM
I never get sick when strung on opiates, but before I got sick occasionally. Strange.

Restharrow
04-13-2010, 08:43 AM
My long time (retired) family dr. had a theory that people addicted to opiates continually run a low grade fever as the drug leaves their system (early phase WD) and the regular low grade fever kills bacteria and viruses.

Before I started taking pain meds, I went thru a 3 year period of CONSTANT sinus infections. These stopped after I started taking vicodin daily.

Will

mamasou
04-13-2010, 09:09 AM
Before I started taking pain meds, I went thru a 3 year period of CONSTANT sinus infections. These stopped after I started taking vicodin daily.



Maybe it is a shared property of almost all opiates then.

PS: Vicodin also contains paracetamol right?

Uncle Wiggly
04-13-2010, 09:22 AM
I've seldom been sick, dope-sick excluded, since becoming a CP patient. I used to get quite a few sinus infections, colds and upper respiratory problems but haven't been troubled with those in years. Perhaps the low-grade-fever theory is why.

The only time I've been ill since beginning PM is when I came down with H1N1 last year. I was so sick I couldn't keep anything, including my meds, down and had to resort to unconventional ROA.

Poppylvr
04-13-2010, 12:51 PM
I've seldom been sick, dope-sick excluded, since becoming a CP patient. I used to get quite a few sinus infections, colds and upper respiratory problems but haven't been troubled with those in years. Perhaps the low-grade-fever theory is why.

The only time I've been ill since beginning PM is when I came down with H1N1 last year. I was so sick I couldn't keep anything, including my meds, down and had to resort to unconventional ROA.
Well huh.
I too have had way less than my usual sneezles and coughs in the 2 years 4 months I've been on subs. I just never realized it until now.
At the risk of derailing, do other people get that "Oh you can't possibly be THAT old" comment all the time? I'm 56 and I get told I look 16 years younger quite a lot. I have fully gray hair and a grandmotherly body ie fat - no wrinkles :D . I DO look considerably younger than my age. I've told people "hey all the IV morphine preserved me".
Wondering if anyone else gets that comment too.

Tautou
04-13-2010, 01:19 PM
I cant comment on the age, but I too, NEVER get sick when on constant opiate regimen. I recall only one time when I was sick, and I woke up feeling ill ( you know how you can tell the diff between dope sickness and actual sickness) but as soon as I dosed (1130 AM, it was a habit for 5 years) I couldnt feel 95% of the effects of the sickness. So maybe we just dont feel it because its masked by the drug? Maybe we are getting sick, just not feeling it? Hmmm.

I love not getting sick though, when I get the REAL flu, I come closer to ACTUALLY killing myself than I ever have before. Life is not worth living at that point. Weird huh?

Take care and good luck

mamasou
04-13-2010, 01:29 PM
So it looks like opiates can fend off infections.

Im am pretty sure there is an actual mechanism underlying that but i have no medical reference at the moment to back it up.

Thanat0s
04-13-2010, 01:41 PM
i imagine in part it is due due both
the fact you dont NOTICE minor cold/sick ailments
AND
that opies seem to rev up the immune sys, poss due the simple fact its a non local substance in the bloodstream,
even not IV it seems to heighten effective immune response...

why that is i dunno,
correlation is NOT causation,
but many many correlations cannot be totally ignored re: causality...

jdub
04-13-2010, 02:21 PM
Yeah, when I am strung out I don't get colds, flus etc. But prior to active addiction, I got them a couple times a year.

I also look very young for my age. I'm 28 and still get carded buying cigarettes.

maycausedrowsiness
04-13-2010, 02:43 PM
I think the theory that "opiates lower the immune system" draws its conclusion from the fact that when you abstain from opiates for good, your immune system is permanently tarnished.. in other words once you get off the junk, you're probly going to get more colds/sinus infections that you did before you began opiates..

when you are doped up, it is absolutely true that you get sick less. I too haven't gotten sick from anything like a cold or anything like that since I've been on opiates. The question is, does prolonged opiate use screw up our systems once you get clean? it definitely does have an impact for a while once you get clean, but I tend to think that it would go back to normal eventually.

The_Chef
04-13-2010, 03:47 PM
i imagine in part it is due due both
the fact you dont NOTICE minor cold/sick ailments
AND
that opies seem to rev up the immune sys, poss due the simple fact its a non local substance in the bloodstream,
even not IV it seems to heighten effective immune response...


Ladies and Gentlemen, we have a winner. Both of these are quite true. First off, the fact of the matter is that opiates do a tip top job of masking or even combating the symptoms (aches, cough, sniffles, etc) of most common sicknesses. Secondly, there is the often overlooked autoimmune response to opiates in your bloodstream. When we talk about the itch or a strong histamine reaction (rash and whatnot) this is what is really happening. These are not so much products of the drug itself but rather the body's reaction to the drug and it's safe to assume that there are other, less noticed autoimmune reactions going on at the same time.

mamasou
04-13-2010, 04:13 PM
Ladies and Gentlemen, we have a winner. Both of these are quite true. First off, the fact of the matter is that opiates do a tip top job of masking or even combating the symptoms (aches, cough, sniffles, etc) of most common sicknesses. Secondly, there is the often overlooked autoimmune response to opiates in your bloodstream. When we talk about the itch or a strong histamine reaction (rash and whatnot) this is what is really happening. These are not so much products of the drug itself but rather the body's reaction to the drug and it's safe to assume that there are other, less noticed autoimmune reactions going on at the same time.

Right!

Histamine release.

That is definately a plausible mechanism.

nick
04-13-2010, 04:19 PM
In terms of the immune system it's important to differentiate between opiates and the lifestyle that often comes with them.

Mama,I've also been reading up on this subject and when and if I come across anything concrete or of interest I'll drop you a message.

bigNasty
04-13-2010, 04:22 PM
At the risk of derailing, do other people get that "Oh you can't possibly be THAT old" comment all the time? I'm 56 and I get told I look 16 years younger quite a lot. I have fully gray hair and a grandmotherly body ie fat - no wrinkles :D . I DO look considerably younger than my age. I've told people "hey all the IV morphine preserved me".
Wondering if anyone else gets that comment too.
Yes, those are two of the benefits of using opi's for me. Never get sick and look younger than people my age that don't use opi's. I always tell non users that the opi's are preservatives and that's why I look better and younger than them

Paregoric Kid
04-13-2010, 05:28 PM
yeah its pretty amazing that opioid and cannabinoid receptors are part of the immune system and very important. I believe when those receptors are occupied it is harder for certain diseases to sicken you and weaken your immune system. there is a whole bunch of info on the role of opioids and the immune system, later I might post some of the studies. but be skeptical of ones that try to suggest that opioids have a very detrimental effect on the immune system, many are flawed and only use addicts who have poor hygienic and harm reduction practices. if you live relatively healthy, opioids will boost your immune system. I rarely get sick now, whereas before taking opioids I was frequently sick. I remember Burroughs saying how lots of addicts seemed immune to the Spanish flu when the epidemic was going on. if true that could be explained by the immunomodulating effects of opioids.

Count Zero
04-13-2010, 08:14 PM
Ladies and Gentlemen, we have a winner. Both of these are quite true. First off, the fact of the matter is that opiates do a tip top job of masking or even combating the symptoms (aches, cough, sniffles, etc) of most common sicknesses. Secondly, there is the often overlooked autoimmune response to opiates in your bloodstream. When we talk about the itch or a strong histamine reaction (rash and whatnot) this is what is really happening. These are not so much products of the drug itself but rather the body's reaction to the drug and it's safe to assume that there are other, less noticed autoimmune reactions going on at the same time.

This is a theory, put forth by a MD friend who I respect, that I have absolutely no scientific basis for whatsoever, but she thinks that the same respiratory suppression that causes ODs works in (non ODing) users to cause "shallower breathing" and this prevents a lot of respiratory/flu/sinus problems. The masking of the symptoms thing is unarguable, it's masked a lot worse symptoms than that.

Chipper
04-13-2010, 10:05 PM
I read on here that one possible reason is that we insulate ourselves with the drug and then the all-to-common fever (one w/d symptom) kicks in, it's often possibly enough to stop the common cold in it's tracks.

Plus, feeling like a million bucks can't hurt the old psycho-immune system.

digby
04-14-2010, 12:28 AM
I'm on opioids 24/7, yet I still get sick from flu at least twice a year and add to that a cold or two every year. Non to quash your theory, but I am sick rather often.

Of course, the nature of my disability certainly affects the immune system, so my case is not the same as someone that does opiates purely recreationally. I can say though that a lower respiratory rate seems to encourage lung and bronchial problems rather than discourage them - at least in my case.

hairandwine
04-14-2010, 01:16 AM
Although I have only used opiates for a year and a half-ish, I have NEVER had a common cold while on them. The only time I became sick was during my longest break of three weeks, in a third world country, where I was in contact with someone who was clearly sick, non-stop, for four days straight.

In-country, I have lived with people who have all gotten severe colds and flues, and been chipping away in the house, off the kitchen table we all ate off of, and never got sick. I have been underdressed for winter while high, for hours, and never gotten a cold.

I honestly think that someone should do a study on what exactly causes these effects in some people (not all), as maybe it could work towards the decriminalization of recreational opiate use.

sweetpoppygrrl
04-14-2010, 01:33 AM
propaganda?

since i've been on a better maintenance, i haven't been ill, when, while i was working, i'd be sick about 2-4 times a year...

maybe it's the lack of socialization ... being a relative shut in it's not like i'm around tons of folks...

or, maybe, since opies have a relative calming effect in and of themselves, the stress levels are down and the immune system izzin't under constant attack 'from within', so to speak...

i notice my coping skills are very much mo better when i'm dosed--- little things that would have set me right over the moon before are no big shakes now--- or maybe i've "matured" :rolleyes::p;)

interesting fact about the spanish flu...

underide
04-14-2010, 01:57 AM
I never get sick when strung on opiates, but before I got sick occasionally. Strange.

i noticed that too, especially using gear, but could it be that being high and especially no stopping for rest at it, that you (we??) just don't notice the worst of the sickness ? :confused:
well -non opiate-withdrawal kind of sickness ofcourse..
^^that type of sickness is kinda hard to ignore

mamasou
04-14-2010, 07:26 AM
There is little doubt that the complex and intriguing pharmacolocy of opiates have an immunomodulating effect.

After all, they do act on an endogenous system that is proven to be involved in immune activities.

Now, whether they act positively or negatively on the immune system has yet to be adequately examined scientifically.

But from our limited accounts, there seems to be an agreement that the effect is overall positive.

Although it does not prove anything, it is definately worth notice.

The_Chef
04-14-2010, 10:16 AM
This is a theory, put forth by a MD friend who I respect, that I have absolutely no scientific basis for whatsoever, but she thinks that the same respiratory suppression that causes ODs works in (non ODing) users to cause "shallower breathing" and this prevents a lot of respiratory/flu/sinus problems.

This has actually been proven in medical studies. I can't be bothered to find them right now but they are out there if you want them. It has become pretty much standard to give people in severe respiratory distress morphine for this very reason.

underide
04-14-2010, 10:18 AM
It has become pretty much standard to give people in severe respiratory distress morphine for this very reason.

I ALWAYS THOUGHT IT WAS MORPHINES VERY EFFECTIVE COUGH-SUPPRESSANT QUlities that warrant5ed that explanation

doctor diesel
04-14-2010, 11:10 AM
Yep, I'm another one who has noticed a curious absence of general malaise and bug-illnesses while doping up on the good stuff. And I've been around this forum for long enough to know that the majority of dopers report this very same thing. Yet another damned fine reason for the individual to stay nicely smacked up, I say!
And GrannyPoppy, I too look considerably younger than my years (I'm right behind you girl, at 50 years of age, though people say I look 42-ish) though I couldn't claim that this is due to the opie lifestyle, as I only really started playing with opes in earnest in 2006.

Luv y'all!


Doc

Tautou
04-14-2010, 11:33 AM
One other thing occured to me today. When I was 12, I had a really bad case of pneumonia. Every year after that I got a really REALLY bad cough. I mean, it was scare the neighbors away, I had no friends bad kind of cough. Very deep, very painful.

This cough would begin due to (i figured anway) the smoggy inversion that occurs in my city December through February. I would start coughing in January or february, and cough until april or may.

Here's the point: I havent had that cough, AFTER 11 years straight of having it, since I began using opiates regularly in 2003... its April right NOW and Im not coughing... bizzare (to me anyway)

kolesmiv
04-14-2010, 12:14 PM
Before I was strung on opiates I used to get chronic migraines. Like, I would get a migraine and be in bed for 3 days because it fucked me up. This would happen about every 3 weeks. Since then I've been on opiates every day and have yet to be debilitated by another migraine. The last headache that I got I went to the doc and got a prescription called Maxalt. I haven't even opened the bottle (Non-abusable of course :rolleyes:). This is definitely an interesting topic because I've been wondering the same thing for a while.

EDIT: And along with the migraines I would get a high fever and bad body aches...sort of like the flu, so you can tell that I'm glad that I haven't been experiencing them.

doctor diesel
04-14-2010, 12:20 PM
Before I was strung on opiates I used to get chronic migraines. Like, I would get a migraine and be in bed for 3 days because it fucked me up. This would happen about every 3 weeks. Since then I've been on opiates every day and have yet to be debilitated by another migraine. The last headache that I got I went to the doc and got a prescription called Maxalt. I haven't even opened the bottle (Non-abusable of course :rolleyes:). This is definitely an interesting topic because I've been wondering the same thing for a while.

EDIT: And along with the migraines I would get a high fever and bad body aches...sort of like the flu, so you can tell that I'm glad that I haven't been experiencing them.


What kind of a migraine is it that gives you a high fever? Surely, this has never been heard of before?
I take Maxalt for migraines - tastes like you're reaming out a horse's rectum.... and doesn't tend to do too much for your migraine either.
Best thing for my migraines was always HEROIN - worked without fail. Trouble is, society and the S.O. don't want me using that any more.
So what's a serious headache-sufferer to do??!


Doc

Locke
04-14-2010, 01:52 PM
I have a bit of an alternative explanation. Like most of you, I noticed the same thing relating to lack of illness. But the period of my life when I got sick the most often was in my early teens -- I was stressed out all the time, and every time I felt like I might come down with something, I would get really, really sick. I come from a long line of hypochondriacs and can say with all certainty that stress can really be devastating for your immune system. Using opiates is physically, mentally, and emotionally calming. When you're using consistently and you get into a routine, it negates a lot of the shitty realities of being a human. I don't know if that has a positive effect on our immune systems, but it certainly cancels out the negative effects of being super stressed out. When we are calm and focused, our bodies work best.

I'm not saying that's all there is to the relationship between opiophiles and their marvelous resistance to viral and bacterial threats. But it's part of the equation and a helpful detail to remember.

doctor diesel
04-14-2010, 02:30 PM
I have a bit of an alternative explanation. Like most of you, I noticed the same thing relating to lack of illness. But the period of my life when I got sick the most often was in my early teens -- I was stressed out all the time, and every time I felt like I might come down with something, I would get really, really sick. I come from a long line of hypochondriacs and can say with all certainty that stress can really be devastating for your immune system. Using opiates is physically, mentally, and emotionally calming. When you're using consistently and you get into a routine, it negates a lot of the shitty realities of being a human. I don't know if that has a positive effect on our immune systems, but it certainly cancels out the negative effects of being super stressed out. When we are calm and focused, our bodies work best.

I'm not saying that's all there is to the relationship between opiophiles and their marvelous resistance to viral and bacterial threats. But it's part of the equation and a helpful detail to remember.


I buy this totally.

Doc

Paregoric Kid
04-14-2010, 03:14 PM
Mu opioid receptor gene expression in immune cells.

Chuang TK (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Chuang%20TK%22%5BAuthor%5D), Killam KF Jr (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Killam%20KF%20Jr%22%5BAuthor%5D), Chuang LF (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Chuang%20LF%22%5BAuthor%5D), Kung HF (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Kung%20HF%22%5BAuthor%5D), Sheng WS (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Sheng%20WS%22%5BAuthor%5D), Chao CC (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Chao%20CC%22%5BAuthor%5D), Yu L (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Yu%20L%22%5BAuthor%5D), Chuang RY (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Chuang%20RY%22%5BAuthor%5D).
Department of Medical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.
Abstract

We have previously demonstrated that administering morphine sulfate to rhesus monkeys alters the cell-mediated as well as humoral immune responses of these primates. Furthermore, morphine treatment greatly reduces the chemotactic and phagocytotic activities of primate polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. The present study describes the identification and isolation of mRNA encoding the mu opioid receptor gene sequence from human and monkey immune cells. Through the use of primer sequences designed from the human brain mu opioid receptor cDNA sequence, specific opioid receptor segments in mRNA transcripts were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The mu opioid receptor gene was therefore found expressed in the following cell types: CEM x174 (a hybrid of human T and B cells), Raji (human B cells), human CD4+ cells, human monocytes/macrophages, human PMN, monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monkey PMN. These studies present the first evidence to demonstrate that cells of human and monkey immune systems constitutively express mu opioid receptor mRNA.


Opioid Receptors and Signaling on Cells from the Immune System

Abstract This review discusses the criteria for determining whether a binding site or functional response is directly mediated by either the mu, delta, or kappa opioid receptors. In 1988, Sibinga and Goldstein published the first review that addressed whether cells from the immune system express opioid receptors. The criteria that they used, namely, structure–activity relationships, stereoselectivity, dose- and concentration-dependence, and saturability are still relevant criteria today for determining if an immunological response is mediated by either the mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors. Radioligand receptor binding studies and functional studies that clearly show the presence of an opioid receptor on immunocytes are presented. Selective agonists and antagonists for the mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors are discussed, and the need for their use in experiments is emphasized. Conditions used in functional assays are very important. Receptor desensitization and downregulation occur within minutes after the application of an agonist. However, many immunological assays are applying an agonist for days before measuring an immunological effect. The results obtained may reflect changes that are results of receptor desensitization and/or downregulation instead of changes that are observed with acute activation of the receptor. The future of receptor pharmacology lies in the crosstalk and dimerization of G protein-coupled receptors. In transfected systems, opioid receptors have been shown to dimerize with chemokine and cannabinoid receptors, resulting in crosstalk between different types of receptors.

Opioid receptors on cells of the immune system: evidence for Delta - and Kappa -classes

D. J. J. Carr, B. R. DeCosta, C.-H. Kim, A. E. Jacobson, V. Guarcello, K. C. Rice and J. E. Blalock Opioid peptides have been shown to modulate various parameters of both the humoral and cellular arms of the immune system. The modulatory capacity of the peptides can often be substantially reduced in the presence of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, indicating a classical ligand-receptor interaction. In order to characterize these interactions further, we investigated the characteristics of opioid receptors on a macrophage cell line, P388d1. A http://joe.endocrinology-journals.org/math/delta.gif-class opioid receptor was found with an Mr of 58 000. We also identified opioid receptors on MOLT-4 (T-cell) and IM-9 (B cell) cell lines as well as thymocytes and T celland B cell-enriched populations. Using the central (brain) http://joe.endocrinology-journals.org/math/kappa.gif-selective agonist, U-69,593, it was also determined that P388d1 cells possess http://joe.endocrinology-journals.org/math/kappa.gif-like opioid receptors. Scatchard analysis of the binding of [3H]U-69,593 revealed a single population of sites with a dissociation constant of 17 ± 3 (S.E.M.) nmol/l and a total number of binding sites of 53·8 ± 1·0 (S.E.M.) fmol/106 cells. Moreover, the racemic http://joe.endocrinology-journals.org/math/kappa.gif-selective agonist U-50,488H was able to displace 50% of [3H]U-69,593 binding at 8·0 nmol/l, whereas other opioid ligands such as [Met]-enkephalinamide (http://joe.endocrinology-journals.org/math/delta.gif-selective) and [D-Ala2,N - Me - Phe4,Gly5 - ol] - enkephalin (µ - selective) were ineffective displacers of [3H]U-69,593 except at high concentrations.
Opioids, opioid receptors, and the immune response.

McCarthy L (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22McCarthy%20L%22%5BAuthor%5D), Wetzel M (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Wetzel%20M%22%5BAuthor%5D), Sliker JK (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Sliker%20JK%22%5BAuthor%5D), Eisenstein TK (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Eisenstein%20TK%22%5BAuthor%5D), Rogers TJ (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Rogers%20TJ%22%5BAuthor%5D).
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Temple University School of Medicine, 3400 N. Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.
Abstract

It is now clear that opioid receptors participate in the function of the cells of the immune system, and evidence suggests that opioids modulate both innate and acquired immune responses. We review literature here which establishes that mu-, kappa-, and delta-opioid compounds alter resistance to a variety of infectious agents, including the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The nature of the immunomodulatory activity of the opioids has been the subject of a great deal of research over the last ten years. There is increasing evidence that effects of opioids on the immune response are mediated at several levels. Modulation of the inflammatory response appears to be a target of these compounds, including effects on phagocytic activity, as well as the response of cells to various chemoattractant molecules. Moreover, findings from several laboratories have demonstrated the impact of opioid treatment on antibody responses, and the molecular basis for this effect is likely due, at least in part, to the modulation of both cytokine and cytokine receptor expression. Future research should provide a clearer understanding of the cellular and molecular targets of opioid action within the immune system.


Multiple opioid receptors on immune cells modulate intracellular signaling.

Sharp BM (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22Sharp%20BM%22%5BAuthor%5D).
Department of Pharmacology, Health Science Center, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. bsharp@utmem.edu
Abstract

In 1979, Joseph Wybran reported his insights into the existence of different opioid receptor subtypes on T-cells. He observed that morphine and methionine enkephalin had different effects on human T-cell rosetting to sheep red blood cells. Since that time, a wide array of laboratories have shown that opiate alkyloids and opioid peptides exert pleiotropic effects on immune cell function. These compounds are immunomodulators, modifying immune responses to extracellular stimuli such as mitogens, antigens, and antibodies that cross-link the T-cell receptor. It has been demonstrated that cells involved in host defense and immunity express mRNA transcripts encoding the various opioid receptors originally described in neuronal tissues. Molecular imaging approaches have demonstrated the regulated expression of both delta and kappa opioid receptors, predominantly on T-cells. Moreover, atypical opiate and opioid binding sites are present on these cells. This review will consider the evidence for both classical and atypical opioid receptors and their effects on signaling within immune cells; our emphasis is the T-cell and its delta opioid receptor.


from the wikipedia morphine article:
Further studies on the effects of morphine on the immune system have shown that morphine influences the production of neutrophils (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrophils) and other cytokines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokines). Since cytokines are produced as part of the immediate immunological response (inflammation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammation)), it has been suggested that they may also influence pain. In this way, cytokines may be a logical target for analgesic development. Recently, one study has used an animal model (hind-paw incision) to observe the effects of morphine administration on the acute immunological response. Following hind-paw incision, pain thresholds and cytokine production were measured. Normally, cytokine production in and around the wounded area increases in order to fight infection (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infection) and control healing (and, possibly, to control pain), but pre-incisional morphine administration (0.1-10.0 mg/kg) reduced the number of cytokines found around the wound in a dose-dependent manner. The authors suggest that morphine administration in the acute post-injury period may reduce resistance to infection and may impair the healing of the wound.[38] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphine#cite_note-37)

sweetpoppygrrl
04-14-2010, 07:48 PM
nice pk---
thanks!!!

The_Chef
04-14-2010, 11:51 PM
Using opiates is physically, mentally, and emotionally calming. When you're using consistently and you get into a routine, it negates a lot of the shitty realities of being a human. I don't know if that has a positive effect on our immune systems, but it certainly cancels out the negative effects of being super stressed out. When we are calm and focused, our bodies work best.


Seems reasonable enough. Favoring the body side of the mind/body spectrum myself, I can't fully accept it on philosophical grounds (a man must have principles - mine just happen to involve humans being ugly hunks of bloody meat largely guided by random chance) but it is likely true to an extent. The reality probably lies somewhere in between the immunological explanations and this one.

Also, "negat(ing) the shitty realities of being a human" sounds like a pretty good description of what I spend most (too goddamn much probably) of my time doing.